Magento 2, You can get Product URL from Product object. You can be assigned Product URL to any page in store for a redirect to Product page.
I hope you have Product Object, Get Product Object by SKU
If you want to get Only Url Key value, You can access by $product->getUrlKey() method.
You can product full URL by getProductUrl() method.
<?php $sku = '24-MB01'; $_product = $this->productRepository->get($sku);?> <?php echo $_product->getProductUrl(); ?>