How many different types of Eav Entity Types are available in Magento 2?

There are many Eav entity types are available with Magento 2 native.
Check list of Eav Entity Types for Inbuilt out of the box comes with Magento 2,
You can check list of Eav Entity Type from eav_entity_type database table.

All of the above Eav Entity Types are available with Magento 2.

How to Load attribute data by attribute code in Magento 2?

We can get attribute data by attribute code by just passing attribute code in below function. We have taken entity_type_code as Catalog_Product  as a demo in below code, You can get any entity_type_code as per your requirement.

Now, Call getAttributeInfo() function from template,

The result will be like below array for color product attribute,